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各国の憲法で、「主権」はどう表現されているか
International Constitutional Law
http://www.servat.unibe.ch/law/icl/index.html

に載っている各国の憲法条文(英語訳)を中心に、次のカテゴリーに分けて調べてみました。
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A・・・「主権は人民(国民)にある」ことを本文に独立した項目として明記しているもの
B・・・「権力(法)は人民(国民)より発する」ことを本文に独立した項目として明記しているもの
C・・・上記二つのどちらかを、本文の独立した項目ではないが明記しているもの
D・・・その他
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アフガニスタン A
Article 4 [Sovereignty, Ethnic Groups, Citizenship]
(1) National sovereignty in Afghanistan belongs to the nation that exercises it directly or through its representatives.

アルバニア A
Article 2
1. Sovereignty in the Republic of Albania belongs to the people.

アルジェリア AB
Article 6 [Popular Sovereignty]
(1) The People are the source of any power.
(2) The national sovereignty belongs exclusively to the People.

アンゴラ A
Article 3
(1) Sovereignty shall be vested in the people, who shall exercise it in the manner provided for in the present Law.

アルゼンチン D
Section 1
The Argentine Nation adopts the federal republican representative form of government, as this Constitution establishes.

アルメニア B
Article 2
In the Republic of Armenia power lies with the people.
The people exercise their power through free elections and referenda, as well as through state and local self-governing bodies and public officials as provided by the Constitution. The usurpation of power by any organization or individual constitutes a crime.

オーストリア B
Article 1 [Republic, Democracy]
Austria is a democratic republic. Its law emanates from the people.

オーストラリア D

アゼルバイジャン B
Article 1 The source of power
(1) The sole source of state power in the Azerbaijan Republic are the people of Azerbaijan.

Article 2 Sovereignty of people
(1) Sovereign right of the Azerbaijanian people is the right of free and independent determination of their destiny and establishment of their own form of governance.
(2) The people of Azerbaijan exercise their sovereign right directly\emdash by way of nation-wide voting\emdash referendum, and through their representatives elected based on universal, equal and direct suffrage by way of free, secret and personal ballot.

バーレーン A
Article 1 [Sovereignty, Constitutional Monarchy]
d. The system of government in the Kingdom of Bahrain is democratic, sovereignty being in the hands of the people, the source of all powers. Sovereignty shall be exercised in the manner stated in this Constitution.

バングラデシュ B
7. Supremacy of the Constitution.
(1) All powers in the Republic belong to the people, and their exercise on behalf of the people shall be effected only under, and by the authority of, this Constitution.

ベラルーシ B
Article 3 [Democracy]
(1) The people shall be the sole source of state power in the Republic of Belarus. The people shall exercise their power directly and through representative bodies in the forms and within the limits specified in the Constitution.

ベルギー B
Article 33 [Sovereignty, Rule of Law]
(1) All power emanates from the Nation.
(2) The power is exerted in the manner established by the Constitution.

Article 34 [Transfer of Sovereignty]
The exercising of determined power can be attributed by a treaty or by a law to international public institutions.

ブータン
Article 1 Kingdom of Bhutan
1. Bhutan is a Sovereign Kingdom and the Sovereign power belongs to the people of Bhutan.


ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ D

ブラジル B
Article 1 [State Principles]
(1) All power emanates from the people, who exercise it by means of elected representatives or directly, according to this Constitution.

ブルガリア B
Article 1 [State]
(2) The entire power of the state shall derive from the people. The people shall exercise this power directly and through the bodies established by this Constitution.
(3) No part of the people, no political party nor any other organization, state institution, or individual shall usurp the expression of the popular sovereignty.

カンボジア D
カナダ D

チェチェン B
Article 2 (The Multinational People, R.F. 3)
(1) The only source of power in the Chechen Republic within the scope of its jurisdiction is to be its multinational people.

中国 B
Article 2 [Sovereignty]
(1) All power in the People's Republic of China belongs to the people.

コンゴ A
Article 4 [Sovereignty, Democracy, Principle]
(1) National Sovereignty shall belong to the people who exercise it by way of referendum and by representatives elected by universal suffrage.

クロアチア A
Article 1 [State Principles]
(2) Power in the Republic of Croatia derives from the people and belongs to the people as a community of free and equal citizens.

キューバ AB
ARTICLE 3
In the Republic of Cuba sovereignty lies in the people, from whom originates all the power of the state.

キプロス D

チェコ B
Article 2 [Power]
(1) All state power derives from the people; they exercise this power by means of their legislative, executive, and judicial bodies.

デンマーク D

エジプト A
Article 3
Sovereignty is for the people alone who will practise and protect this sovereignty and safeguard national unity in the manner specified by the Constitution

エストニア B
Article 1 [Sovereignty]
(1) Estonia is an independent and sovereign democratic republic wherein the supreme power of the state is held by the people.

エチオピア A
Article 8 Sovereignty of the people
(1) All sovereign power resides in the Nations, Nationalities and Peoples of Ethiopia.
(2) This Constitution is an expression of their sovereignty.

フィジー D

フィンランド B
Section 2 Democracy and the rule of law
(1) The powers of the State in Finland are vested in the people, who are represented by the Parliament.
(2) Democracy entails the right of the individual to participate in and influence the development of society and his or her living conditions.

フランス A
Article 3 [Electoral Rights]
(1) National sovereignty belongs to the people, who exercise it through their representatives and by means of referendums.

グルジア B
Article 5 [Souvereignty, Democracy, Separation of Powers]
(1) The people shall be the source of state authority in Georgia. The state authority shall be exercised within the framework established by the Constitution.


ギリシャ A
Article 1 [Parliamentary Democracy]
(2) Popular sovereignty is the foundation on which the form of government rests.
(3) All powers are derived from the People, exist for the benefit of the People and the Nation, and are exercised in the manner determined by the Constitution.

ハンガリー AB
Article 2 [Democracy, Rule of Law, Sovereignty]
(2) In the Republic of Hungary supreme power is vested in the people, who exercise their sovereign rights directly and through elected representatives.

アイスランド D (三権に分かれて規定)
Article 2
Althingi and the President of Iceland jointly exercise legislative power. The President and other governmental authorities referred to in this Constitution and elsewhere in the law exercise executive power. Judges exercise judicial power.


インド C

インドネシア B
Article 1

(2). Sovereignty shall be in the hands of the people and shall be fully exercised by the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR).

イラン D
Article 2 [Foundational Principles]
The Islamic Republic is a system based on belief in:
1) the One God (as stated in the phrase "There is no god except Allah"), His exclusive sovereignty and right to legislate, and the necessity of submission to His commands;

イラク(日本と似ている) C
Article 10 [Respect by Government]
As an expression of the free will and sovereignty of the Iraqi people, their representatives shall form the governmental structures of the State of Iraq. The Iraqi Transitional Government and the governments of the regions, governorates, municipalities, and local administrations shall respect the rights of the Iraqi people, including those rights cited in this Chapter.

アイルランド C
Article 1 [Sovereign Rights]
The Irish nation hereby affirms its inalienable, indefeasible, and sovereign right to choose its own form of Government, to determine its relations with other nations, and to develop its life, political, economic and cultural, in accordance with its own genius and traditions.

イスラエル D

イタリア A
Article 1 [Form of State]
(2) The sovereignty belongs to the people who exercise it in the forms and limits of the constitution.

日本 C

ケニア D

クウェート C
Article 6 [Democracy]
The System of Government in Kuwait shall be democratic, under which sovereignty resides in the people, the source of all powers. Sovereiguty shall be exercised in the manner specified in this Constitution.

ラトビア A
Article 2 [Popular Sovereignty]
The sovereign power of the State of Latvia is vested in the people of Latvia.

レバノン C
Preamble
d. The people are the source of authority and sovereignty; they shall exercise these powers through the constitutional institutions.

リベリア B
Article 1
All power is inherent in the people....

リビア A
Article 1 [Principles]
Libya is an Arab, democratic, and free republic in which sovereignty is vested in the people....

リトアニア A
Article 2
The State of Lithuania shall be created by the People. Sovereignty shall be vested in the People.

ルクセンブルグ D

マケドニア A
Article 2
(1) Sovereignty in the Republic of Macedonia derives from the citizens and belongs to the citizens.

マダガスカル A
Article 6 [Sovereignty, Representation, Electoral Rights]
(1) Sovereignty shall belong to the people, who shall exercise it through their representatives elected by direct or indirect universal suffrage or through a referendum. No faction or individual may usurp the exercise of sovereignty.

マレーシア D

マルタ D

モーリタニア AB
Article 2 [Sovereignty]
(1) The people shall be the source of all power.
(2) The national sovereignty belongs to the people which exercises it through its elected representatives and through referendum.

メキシコ AB
Article 39
The national sovereignty resides essentially and originally in the people All public power originates in the people and is instituted for their benefit. The people at all times have the inalienable right to alter or modify their form of government.

ミクロネシア A
PREAMBLE
WE, THE PEOPLE OF MICRONESIA, exercising our inherent sovereignty, do hereby establish this Constitution of the Federated States of Micronesia.

モルドバ A
Article 2
Sovereignty and State Power
(1) National sovereignty resides with the people of the Republic of Moldova, who shall exercise it directly and through its representative bodies in the ways provided for by Constitution.

モンゴル B
Article 3 [Sovereignty]
(1) State power is vested in the people of Mongolia. The people exercises it through direct participation in state affairs and through representative bodies of state power elected by them.

モロッコ A
Article 2 [Sovereignty]
Sovereignty belongs to the Nation which exercises it directly by means of referendum and indirectly through its constitutional institutions.

ミャンマー D
Article 4
National sovereignty shall reside in the entire State.


ナミビア B
Article 1 [Establishment of the Republic of Namibia and Identification of its Territory]
(2) All power shall vest in the people of Namibia who shall exercise their sovereignty through the democratic institutions of the State.

ネパール A
Article 3 The Sovereignty
The sovereignty of Nepal is vested in the Nepalese people and shall be exercised in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.

北朝鮮 D
第7条 朝鮮民主主義人民共和国の主権は、労働者、農民、兵士、勤労インテリにある。


オランダ D
ニュージーランド D
ノルウェー D
オマーン D
パキスタン D

パラグァイ A
Article 2 About Sovereignty
In the Republic of Paraguay the sovereignty rests with the people, who exercise it in accordance with the provisions of this Constitution.

パプア・ニューギニア C (前文)
AND WE ASSERT, by virtue of that authority
·that all power belongs to the people—acting through their duly elected representatives


フィリピン AB
ARTICLE II
Section 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them.

ポーランド B
Article 4
(1) Supreme power in the Republic of Poland shall be vested in the Nation.
(2) The Nation shall exercise such power directly or through their representatives.

ポルトガル A
Article 3 Sovereignty and Legality
(1) Sovereignty, one and indivisible, rests with the people, who exercise it in accordance with the forms laid down in the Constitution.

カタール D

ルーマニア A
Article 2 [Popular Sovereignty]
(1) National sovereignty resides with the Romanian people, who shall exercise it through its representative bodies and by referendum.

ロシア AB
Article 3 [The Multinational People]
(1) The multinational people of the Russian Federation is the vehicle of sovereignty and the only source of power in the Russian Federation.

ルワンダ AB
Article 6 [Sovereignty]
(1) All power shall originate from the Nation.
(2) National sovereignty shall belong to the people of Rwanda which shall exercise it through representatives or by means of referendum.

サウジアラビア D
シンガポール D

スロヴァキア B
Article 2
(1) State power is derived from citizens, who execute it through their elected representatives or directly.

スロヴェニア B
Article 3 [Self-Determination, Sovereignty]
(2) In Slovenia power is vested in the people. Citizens exercise this power directly and through elections, consistent with the principle of the separation of legislative, executive and judicial powers.

ソマリア A
Article 1: The State of the Republic of Somaliland
2. Sovereignty resides in the people who shall exercise it in accordance with the Constitution and other laws.


南アフリカ D

スリランカ A
Sovereignty of the People.
3. In the Republic of Sri Lanka sovereignty is in the people and is inalienable. Sovereignty includes the powers of government, fundamental rights and the franchise.

スーダン A
Article 4
Supremacy and Sovereignty
God, the creator of all people, is supreme over the State and sovereignty is delegated to the people of Sudan by succession, to be practiced as worship to God, performing his trust, developing the homeland, and spreading justice, freedom and shura in accordance with the Constitution and laws.


シリア A
Article 2 [Republic, Sovereignty]
(2) Sovereignty is vested in the people, who exercise it in accordance with this Constitution.

韓国 AB
Article 1 [Democracy]
(2) The sovereignty of the Republic of Korea resides in the people, and all state authority emanates from the people.

スペイン AB
Article 1 [State Principles, Sovereignty, Form]
(2) National sovereignty belongs to the Spanish people from whom emanate the powers of the state.

スウェーデン B
Article 1
(1) All public power in Sweden proceeds from the people.

スイス D(連邦制のため、各州[カントン]に主権を置いている)
Article 3 Cantons
The Cantons are sovereign insofar as their sovereignty is not limited by the Federal Constitution; they exercise all rights not transferred to the Federation.

台湾 A
Article 2
The sovereignty of the Republic of China shall reside in the whole body of citizens.

タジキスタン AB
Article 6
In Tajikistan, the people are the possessors of the sovereignty and are the only source of state power, which is exercised both directly and also through the people's representatives.

チュニジア A
Article 3 [Sovereignty]
The sovereignty belongs to the Tunisian poople who exercise it in conformity with the Constitution.

トルコ A
Article 6 Sovereignty
(1) Sovereignty is vested in the nation without reservation or condition.

ウガンダ C
THE PREAMBLE

.....
Exercising our sovereign and inalienable right to determine the form of governance for our country, and having fully participated in the Constitution-making process;


ウクライナ AB
Article 5
* The people are the bearers of sovereignty and the only source of power in Ukraine. The people exercise power directly and through bodies of state power and bodies of local self-government.


アメリカ D

ウズベキスタン
Art. 7
The people are the sole source of state power.

ベトナム B
Article 2 [Law Governance, People's State, State Powers]
(1) The Socialist Republic of Vietnam State is a law governed socialist State of the people, by the people and for the people. All State powers belong to the people and are based on the alliance between the working class, the peasantry and the intelligentsia.

イエメン B
Article 4
Power rests with the people who is the source of all powers. The people shall exercise its power directly through referenda and general elections, and indirectly through legislative, executive, and judicial bodies and also through elected local councils.

ザンビア D
ジンバブエ D
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集計すると、

Aグループ (30カ国):
アフガニスタン、アルバニア、アンゴラ、バーレーン、ブータン、コンゴ、クロアチア、エジプト、エチオピア、フランス、
ギリシャ、イタリア、ラトビア、リビア、リトアニア、マケドニア、マダガスカル、モルドバ、モロッコ、ネパール、
パラグァイ、ポルトガル、ルーマニア、ソマリア、スリランカ、スーダン、シリア、台湾、チュニジア、トルコ

Bグループ (24カ国):
アルメニア、オーストリア、バングラデシュ、ベラルーシ、ベルギー、ブラジル、ブルガリア、チェチェン、中国、チェコ、
エストニア、フィンランド、グルジア、インドネシア、リベリア、モンゴル、ナミビア、ポーランド、スロヴァキア、スロヴェニア、
スウェーデン、ウズベキスタン、ベトナム、イエメン

AB(両方を含む)グループ (14カ国):
アルジェリア、アゼルバイジャン、キューバ、ハンガリー、クウェート、モーリタニア、メキシコ、フィリピン、ロシア、ルワンダ、韓国、スペイン、タジキスタン、ウクライナ

Cグループ (6カ国):
インド、イラク(日本と似ている)、アイルランド、日本(前文)、レバノン(前文)、ミクロネシア(前文)、ウガンダ(前文)

Dグループ (30カ国):
アルゼンチン、オーストラリア、ボスニア・ヘルツェゴビナ、カンボジア、カナダ、キプロス、デンマーク、フィジー、アイスランド、イラン、
イスラエル、ケニア、ルクセンブルグ、マレーシア、マルタ、ミャンマー、オランダ、ニュージーランド、ナイジェリア、北朝鮮、
ノルウェー、オマーン、カタール、パキスタン、サウジアラビア、シンガポール、南アフリカ、スイス、アメリカ、ザンビア、ジンバブエ
[PR]

by shiryouko | 2007-05-27 08:43 | 主権